The States participating in the Paris Conference on Cambodia, namely the Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Canada, People’s Republic of China, the French Republic, the Republic of India, Republic of Indonesia, the Japan, the Republic lao ,Malaysia, the Republic of the Philippines, the Republic of Singapore, the Kingdom of Thailand, the Union ofSoviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States, the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia,
In the presence of the Secretary-General of the Organization of the United Nations, To maintain, preserve and defend the sovereignty, independence, integrity and territorial inviolability, neutrality and national unity of Cambodia, Eager to restore and maintain peace in Cambodia, to promote national reconciliation and ensuring the exercise of the right to self-determination of the people of Cambodia through free and fair elections, Convinced that only a comprehensive political settlement of the Cambodian conflict will be fair and sustainable and will contribute to regional and international peace and security, Welcoming the framework document of 28 August 1990, which was accepted by the Cambodian parties in its entirety as a basis for the settlement of the Cambodia conflict, and which was then approved unanimously by resolution 668 (1990) of 20 September 1990 and the resolution of the Assembly 45 / 3 on October 15, 1990, Noting the formation, in Jakarta on 10 September 1990 of the Supreme national Council of Cambodia as the legitimate single source of authority in Cambodia where, during the transitional period, national sovereignty and unity are sacred, and represents Cambodia to the outside, Welcoming the election unanimously, in Beijing, on July 17, 1991, of HRH Prince Norodom Sihanouk as president of the supreme national Council,
Recognizing that strengthening the role of the United Nations requires the establishment of a transitional authority of the United Nations in Cambodia (UNTAC) with the civilian and military components, which will act in full respect for the national sovereignty of Cambodia, Noting the statements made at the end of the meetings held in Jakarta on 9-10 September 1990, in Paris on the 21-23 December 1990 in Pattaya the 24-26 June 1991 in Beijing the 16-17 July 1991 in Pattaya 26-29 August 1991, as well as the meetings held in Jakarta on 4-6 June 1991 and New York on September 19, 1991. Welcoming the UN Security Council resolution 717 (1991) of 16 October 1991 on Cambodia, Recognizing that the tragic recent history of Cambodia requires special measures to ensure the protection of human rights, and the non-return to the policies and practices of the past, ………………………………………………… …………..…………..………………………. Have agreed the following:
1. Cambodia solemnly undertakes by this agreement, to maintain, preserve and defend its sovereignty, its independence, its integrity and territorial inviolability, neutrality and national unity; the perpetual Cambodia’s neutrality will be proclaimed and enshrined in the Cambodian constitution to be adopted after the holding of free and fair elections.
2. To this end, Cambodia is committed to:
(d) put an end to the treaties and agreements that are incompatible with its sovereignty, its independence, its integrity and territorial inviolability, its neutrality and national unity;
1. The other Parties to this agreement solemnly undertake by this agreement to recognize and respect in all respects the sovereignty, independence, integrity and territorial inviolability, neutrality and national unity of Cambodia.
2. At this end, they undertake to:
(e) to refrain from using their territory or the territory of other States to infringe the sovereignty, independence, integrity and territorial inviolability, neutrality and national unity of Cambodia;
1.All persons in Cambodia shall enjoy the rights and freedoms provided by the Universal Declaration of human rights and other relevant international instruments relating to human rights.
2. To this end, Cambodia undertakes to: Ensure the observance of the rights of man and fundamental freedoms in Cambodia;
Support the right of all Cambodian citizens to undertake activities to promote and protect the Human rights and fundamental freedoms; Make effective measures to ensure that the policies and practices of the past shall never be allowed to return; Adhere to the relevant international instruments relating to human rights; The other signatories to this agreement undertake to promote and encourage respect and the respect of the rights of man and fundamental freedoms in Cambodia as enshrined in the relevant international instruments and relevant resolutions of the General Assembly of the United Nations to, inter alia, to prevent the recurrence of human rights violations.
The Parties to this agreement ask all other States to recognize and respect in all respects the sovereignty, independence, integrity and territorial inviolability, neutrality and national unity of Cambodia and to refrain from any action incompatible with these principles or with other provisions of this agreement.
1. In the case of violation or threat of violation of sovereignty, independence, integrity and territorial inviolability, neutrality and unity of Cambodia or one any commitments made under this agreement, the Parties to this agreement undertake to immediately conduct consultations to take all appropriate steps to ensure compliance with such commitments and address these cases of violation by peaceful means.
2. These provisions may include, among other things, the referral to the UN Security Council or the use of the means of peaceful settlement of disputes referred to in Article 33 of the Charter of the United Nations .
3. Parties to this agreement may also request the assistance of the co-Chairmen of the Paris Conference on Cambodia.
4. In the event of serious violations of the Human rights in Cambodia, they will ask the competent organs of the Organization of the United Nations to take any other appropriate measures to prevent and put an end to these violations in accordance with the relevant international instruments.
This agreement shall enter into force on the date of its signature.
This agreement shall remain open for accession by all States. The instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Governments of the French Republic and the Republic of Indonesia. For each State acceding to the agreement, shall enter into force on the date of the deposit of its instrument of accession.
The original of this agreement, of which the texts in English, Chinese, French, Khmer, Russian languages are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Governments of the French Republic and the Republic of Indonesia, which in will transmit certified copies to the Governments of the other States participating in the Paris Conference on Cambodia as well as to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
IN witness whereof, the Plenipotentiaries undersigned, being duly authorized, have signed this agreement.
DONE at Paris, on 23 October, one thousand nine hundred and ninety-one
Article 1. Cambodia has to cancel treaties to defend its sovereignty.
2. other signatories including Vietnam and Thailand have to respect this sovereignty
3. Cambodia has to respect the Human Rights
4. The signatories have to not let any country violate Cambodia.
5. In the event of a violation of territorial integrity and of Human rights, the
signatories and the 2 co-chairmen undertake to settle peacefully and/or to
recourse to the Security Council of the United Nations.
21 years after, khmer people did not see coming this cancellation of the 1979, 1982, 1983, 19885 bilateral treaties. On the other hand, they are very disappointed with the adoption, under the threat of the CPP – Hun Sen, of the additive bilateral Treaty 2005, to extend the former treaties unequal and unjust and consolidate the colonization and the
territorial annexation of Cambodia by the Viet Nam. Under all these treaties and, thanks to bilateral derived laws, decrees, administrative measures … , the Viet Nam has trampled the sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of Cambodia, as if the Paris agreement did not exist, and that Cambodia still remains under its domination since the invasion of its troops on 7 January 1979. The leaders of the two countries despise the Cambodian people, by manipulating the national and international public opinion, in violation of the October 23, 1991 Paris agreement of wich Cambodia and the Viet Nam are signatories. In clear, 34 years after its invasion and 21 years after the Paris agreement, Cambodia is already the Vietnamese territory in every sense of the word. The khmer people openly consider the Prime Minister Hun Sen as a dictator and traitor to the fatherland, and the Viet Nam Communist as imperialist colonizing Cambodia . Finally, the people consider, in fact, the 2nd Khmer monarchy and all the State apparatus royalo – Communist CPP as traitors to their Nation. At the beginning of the 21st century, the Cambodian people want absolutely live free, independent and non-colonized by the Viet Nam, exactly, as was the Vietnamese people in the 20th century, in fighting against the French and Americans.
The cancellation of these treaties should be finalized in 1993, after Cambodia had had its King, its Government and other Institutions such as the National Assembly, the Senate … in accordance with its Constitution. As the leaders of this 2nd monarchy are traitors (Kings, Ministers, deputies, senators,…), this is why the nation had not seen coming the annulment and this independence of Cambodia. These traitors are introduced in force the 2nd monarchy in which has currently waged with impunity the betrayal, dictatorship, injustice, and corruption, to better serve the Viet Nam!
To regain independence and defend territorial integrity, khmer people have no other choice than to deliver a war of liberation by The Lotus Revolution! To do this, they must chase, by themselves, all the traitors from the power, and then everything, in accordance with the Paris Agreement, the Charter of the Universal Declaration of Human rights. They must not accept this fait accompli and should no longer rely on their royalo – Communist leaders. The Revolution of Lotus appears as the absolute necessity to liberate Cambodia from the Viet Nam and release khmer people from the dictator Hun Sen.
This very valuable international tool (or the Paris Agreement) will have been useless if its 21st Commemoration will inspire the Khmer not to use it as a tool for the liberation of their homeland. Under the Universal Declaration of the human rights, and the rights of peoples, The Lotus Revolutionaries have two enemies: the Khmer leaders traitors and colonial Vietnamese leaders. We have the right to force them to respect the Paris Peace Agreement of 23 October 1991. The failure of The Lotus Revolution is forbidden for us: because it’s simply the failure of Cambodia and the khmer people against the Viet Nam and the royalo-Communist dictatorship of the CPP – Hun Sen. All the hopes of people rely mainly on the consciousness of young people, teachers, workers, farmers and peasants, intelligentsia, including the military, the police, the gendarmerie, military monks, the faithful, civil servants, shopkeepers …. The Lotus Revolution will not be completed without the achievement of its three objectives, namely the departure of the Vietnamese in Cambodia, the fall of Hun Sen at the end of this year 2012 and the installation of a free regime. We call the people of The Lotus Revolution, to apply immediately and on a large scale, the popular Tsunami with intelligence, by adapting it to situations on the ground.
To mark the 21st anniversary of the Paris agreement, we have to manifest by all means, noisily and massively, on October 23, 2012, all over the country , to achieve the Liberation of Cambodia and its people. We wish good luck to The Demonstration of the
khmer people on October 23, 2012, with lotus flowers and sticks of encense in hand, to force the departure of Vietnamese colonists and put an end to the dictatorship of royalo CPP-Hun Sen communism at the end of this year 2012. To defend the territorial integrity of Cambodia, the Khmer people should nothing more expected from their leaders, nor believe in their promises to the forthcoming parliamentary elections. Indeed, the current system of political parties in Cambodia serves only the interests of the party leaders and not those of voters or the people! This will be lost-time! It must compel, by all means, Cambodia (article 1) and the Viet Nam (article 2) to cancel immediately the 1979-1982-1983-1985 treaties and additive treaty 2005. They have the right under this agreement. 17 Other signatories do not have the right to prevent them: they will have the duty to help them (section 4).
Here are some actions :
-Burn peacefully, symbolically, but with determination , the Vietnamese flag and the 1979-1982-1983-1985 treaties and the additive Treaty 2005, as a sign of immediate cancellation of these unfair treaties (non-compliance with article 1). Indeed, all Khmer leaders without exception including Sam Rainsy and Kem Sokha have never dared to explicitly request cancellation of these treaties. (They support Sihanouk who wanted at all costs to the return of his 2nd monarchy). And Sihanouk supports Hun Sen and the CPP. As Hun Sen and the CPP are puppets of the Viet Nam control all powers, all Khmer leaders including the King are obliged to support the annexationist policy of the Viet Nam. This is as well as Cambodia continues to lose its sovereignty and independence. (article 1).
-Notify Vietnamese immigrants (civil and military) installed in Cambodia they are in serious danger and that they are illegal to Cambodian laws on immigration passed by the National Assembly.
-Compel the Viet Nam , imperialist, but signatory to the Paris agreement to immediately terminate these treaties, , and withdraw its 100,000 troops disguised as civilian agents infiltrated and hidden in Cambodia.(article 2)
-Inform the United Nations, the initiator of the Conference of Paris on 23 October 1991, and the Security Council on the breach of the Paris agreement by Cambodia and the Viet Nam and prevent them of possible drift of the wrath of the Cambodians exasperated by the pursuit of territorial annexation and the massive presence of the Vietnamese people, civilians and military personnel in Cambodia (5 to 7 million?) . Inform the international community and the States members of the United Nations, consequences very serious on the risks of instability and insecurity in the region, due to infringement and non-compliance with this agreement by Cambodia and the Viet Nam (article 5).
The Khmer people will have to act strongly, relentlessly, by all means and everywhere, to the United Nations, to the Khmer and Vietnamese embassies in Cambodia or abroad. These peaceful protests ut very determined, in accordance with the spirit of the October 23, 1991 Paris Conference will end when Cambodia and the Viet Nam will have cancelled all these treaties, and that Cambodia will have met article 3 of the Agreement on the human rights. A temporary Government will ensure the establishment of national representative institutions offerig to the khmer people the opportunity of a free and democratic choice and the right to freely elect their new leadership. Before this collective, national and popular victory, all elections are as masquerades, oppression and treason!
It should be noted that, the Viet Nam always insolent, daring today continue its annexation and its imperialism at the expense of Cambodia, because after the cession of
Cochinchina, on June 4, 1949, by the France to the Viet Nam, the 1st monarchy of Sihanouk dared not react by fear of losing his throne offered by the France. Currently, the Khmers of Kampuchea Krom (Cochinchina) victims, assume alone their struggles and claims of independence from the Viet Nam, without the aid of Cambodia (their homeland), and without the help of Sihanouk, the responsible of the shameful abandonment! This is exactly what is happening today: Sihanouk and his family asked King Sihamoni to sign the additive 2005 Treaty, threatened by Hun Sen, puppet of the Viet Nam, by fear of losing this monarchy which has received from State CPP puppet , approximately 15 million US$ per year to survive! The victory of The Lotus Révolution will be for Cambodia and its people, not for a person or a party! With the assistance of CPP puppet, Hanoi continues to defy, with insolence, the international community by extending, as if nothing was, 1979, 1982,1983, 1985 unfair treaties by imposing the additive Treaty 2005, and insidiously swallowing Cambodia. Hence, the suppression of the October 23 to commemorate The 1991 Paris Peace Agreement, and the celebration, by diversion, of the January 7 to glorify the action of the Viet Nam rather than condemn it as plain and simple invasion of Cambodia .
By OU CHAL
Founder Member(Khmer Lotus Revolution )
DEA of philosophy-Sorbonne Paris
DESS Computer documentary-Lyon I & ENSSIB